Jan 13th, 2009

FIRST EXAMPLE:

Text of book says:

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## Replies

Jon Marshall Tue, 01/13/2009 - 08:06

Every area should have at least one router with an interface in area 0. So taking your second example first

R1>--area0----area1--

area1 does have a router with one interface in area0 and that is the interface on R2 that connects to area0. So R2 connects area0 and area1 together. R3 doesn't need a direct connection to area0 because it can get to area0 via R2.

Now look at your other diagram. The router R4 that is in Area 4 has no interface in Area 0 and it is not connected to any other routers in Area 4 that have interfaces in Area 0 so drawing it the same way

-- area 0 -- -- area 34 -- -- area 4

it becomes obvious that for Area4 to connect to area0 there would have to be a physical interface on R4 in area0 but there isn't. That is why you need a virtual link.

Jon

webstd.design Tue, 01/13/2009 - 08:13

Am I right, that in this one new topology

--area0----area1----area2--

Router R4 should have virtual-link configured on?

Jon Marshall Tue, 01/13/2009 - 08:16

R3 would need the virtual link not R4 because it is area2 that is not connected to area0.

Jon

Jon Marshall Tue, 01/13/2009 - 08:22

Sorry about that, lets look at both diagrams again -

1) -- area 0 -- -- area 34 -- -- area 4

If you look at the above R2/R3 have interfaces in both area0 and area34. R4 has interfaces in area34 and area4. R4 therefore is the router that needs a connection to area0

2) --area0----area1----area2--

Looking at this one, R2 has interfaces in both area0 and area1. R3 has interfaces in area1 and area2 BUT no interfaces in area0. So R3 needs a connection to area0. If R3 gets a connection to area0 then R4 has path to area0 via R3.

Jon

Richard Burts Tue, 01/13/2009 - 08:09

Alexandr

There is a significant difference between your first example and second example. The first example specifies that no router in area 4 has a physical connection to area 0. In example 2 a router in area 1 does have a physical connection to area 0.

In OSPF every non-zero area must have a connection to area 0. If there is a physical connection, then that is good and the requirement is satisfied. If there is not a physical connection to area 0 then there must be a virtual link which establishes a virtual connection from the area to area 0.

So in example 1 you must configure a virtual link because there is not a physical connection. In example 2 you do not need a virtual link because there is a physical connection to area 0. It does not have anything to do with Frame Relay.

HTH

Rick

Marwan ALshawi Tue, 01/13/2009 - 20:31

hi guys

also if we have it like

r1--area0--r2--area1---r3--area3--r4

we can make a connectivity without using vertual-link

which is by makeing a gre tunnel interface from r3 to r2 and put that tunnel in area 0