Dynamic address assignment in IPv6 using SLAAC and DHCP

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Sat, 02/01/2014 - 07:46
Apr 17th, 2012


Dynamic Address Assignment

IPv6 prides itself as a protocol that supports many dynamic plug and play functionalities. As a result, there are multiple ways to assign IP addresses in IPv6. This guide will go over two methods of IPv6 address assignment: stateless and stateful


Stateful Address Assignment

Similar to IPv4, IPv6 can use DHCP to statefully assign IP addresses to any clients. Cisco IOS routers can be configured to be Stateful DHCP servers. Stateful DHCP means that the DHCP server is responsible for assigning the IP address to and client. The DHCP server keeps a record of all clients and the IPv6 address assigned to them. Below is a configuration example of a server and client using stateful DHCP.


Server configuration:


ipv6 dhcp pool IPV6_DHCPPOOL

     address prefix 2001:DB8:1000::/64 lifetime infinite infinite

     link-address 2001:DB8:1000::1/64

     dns-server 2001:DB8:1000::1

     domain-name cisco.com

!

interface Ethernet0/0

     ipv6 address 2001:DB8:1000::1/64

     ipv6 enable

     ipv6 nd ra suppress

     ipv6 dhcp server IPV6_DHCPPOOL


Notice how the server can disable RA on its interface facing the client. This is because the DHCP process is completely responsible for assigning IP address to all clients on that Layer 3 segment.


Client configuration:


interface Ethernet0/0

     ipv6 address dhcp

     ipv6 enable


The client configuration is the same in IPv6 as it is for IPv4.


Stateless Address Assignment

This is a unique feature only to IPv6. Stateless address configuration means that the client picks their own address based on the prefix being advertised on their connected interface. All Cisco devices have the ability to participate in Stateless Autoconfiguration (SLAAC). By default, SLAAC does not provide anything to the client outside of an IPv6 address and a default gateway. Additional configuration on the server is necessary before the same information can be provided to the client as Stateful DHCP.


Moreover, it is important to note that SLAAC most commonly uses eui-64 format for address assignment. This means that IPv6 addresses will be built from a combination of the Layer 3 subnet prefix and the MAC address of the client. The requirement for SLAAC is that the LAN segment must use a /64 mask.


Cisco IOS routers support both Stateful DHCP and Stateless DHCP. Stateless DHCP does not track IPv6 address bindings per client. Rather, it uses DHCP only to hand out domain-names, DNS servers and other client relevant information. Below is a server and client configuration example for Stateless address assignment.


Server configuration:


ipv6 dhcp pool IPV6_DHCPPOOL

     dns-server 2001:DB8:1000::1

     domain-name cisco.com

!

interface Ethernet0/0

     ipv6 address 2001:DB8:1000::1/64

     ipv6 enable

     ipv6 nd other-config-flag

     ipv6 dhcp server IPV6_DHCPPOOL


Notice that the DHCP pool configured on the sever has no address pool assigned. This is because the client will select their own IP address since this is a stateless address assignment solution. The router is acting as a stateless DHCP server. Its only role is to provide DNS server and domain name information to clients on this segment.


Client configuration:


interface Ethernet0/0

     ipv6 address auto-config

     ipv6 enable


The client is configured to use SLAAC by setting the "auto-config" option. This command is unique to IPv6 and is the most common way to obtain IP addresses via IPv6.


Relevant Outputs

DHCP debugs can be used to verify the information passed from the server to the cilent. Below are two examples of the output of debug ipv6 dhcp detail. If stateful address assignment is configured, the following debugs should seen on the server:




*Apr 17 18:23:52.286: IPv6 DHCP: Received RELEASE from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 on Ethernet0/0

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286: IPv6 DHCP: detailed packet contents

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   src FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 (Ethernet0/0)

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   dst FF02::1:2

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   type RELEASE(8), xid 13734454

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   option ELAPSED-TIME(8), len 2

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:     elapsed-time 0

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   option CLIENTID(1), len 10

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:     00030001AABBCC01F500

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   option SERVERID(2), len 10

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:     00030001AABBCC01F600

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:   option IA-NA(3), len 40

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:     IAID 0x00030001, T1 0, T2 0

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:     option IAADDR(5), len 24

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:       IPv6 address 2001:DB8:1000:0:F5AA:93AF:F2F:3243

*Apr 17 18:23:52.286:       preferred INFINITY, valid INFINITY

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Using interface pool IPV6_DHCPPOOL

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Found address 2001:DB8:1000:0:F5AA:93AF:F2F:3243 in binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500, IAID 00030001

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Freeing address 2001:DB8:1000:0:F5AA:93AF:F2F:3243 to internal pool 2001:DB8:1000::/64

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Freeing IA_NA 00030001 from binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Freeing binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 from pool IPV6_DHCPPOOL

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: Sending REPLY to FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 on Ethernet0/0

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290: IPv6 DHCP: detailed packet contents

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   src FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F600

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   dst FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 (Ethernet0/0)

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   type REPLY(7), xid 13734454

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   option SERVERID(2), len 10

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:     00030001AABBCC01F600

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   option CLIENTID(1), len 10

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:     00030001AABBCC01F500

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:   option STATUS-CODE(13), len 9

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:     status code SUCCESS(0)

*Apr 17 18:23:52.290:     status message: SUCCESS


Below are the debugs for stateless address assignment:


*Apr 17 18:32:36.866: IPv6 DHCP: Received INFORMATION-REQUEST from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 on Ethernet0/0

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866: IPv6 DHCP: detailed packet contents

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   src FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 (Ethernet0/0)

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   dst FF02::1:2

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   type INFORMATION-REQUEST(11), xid 14259361

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   option ELAPSED-TIME(8), len 2

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:     elapsed-time 0

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   option CLIENTID(1), len 10

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:     00030001AABBCC01F500

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:   option ORO(6), len 6

*Apr 17 18:32:36.866:     DNS-SERVERS,DOMAIN-LIST,INFO-REFRESH

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870: IPv6 DHCP: Using interface pool IPV6_DHCPPOOL

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870: IPv6 DHCP: Sending REPLY to FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 on Ethernet0/0

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870: IPv6 DHCP: detailed packet contents

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   src FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F600

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   dst FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:F500 (Ethernet0/0)

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   type REPLY(7), xid 14259361

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   option SERVERID(2), len 10

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:     00030001AABBCC01F600

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   option CLIENTID(1), len 10

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:     00030001AABBCC01F500

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   option DNS-SERVERS(23), len 16

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:     2001:DB8:1000::1

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:   option DOMAIN-LIST(24), len 11

*Apr 17 18:32:36.870:     cisco.com


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fbovy Wed, 04/25/2012 - 16:07

I have made a Presentation and a Video to introduce all this in details


Video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=958sRC306UE


Presentation:

http://www.slideshare.net/fredbovy/fl-i-pv6autoconf2c



I also explain all this in a Tutorial:

IPv6 TUTORIAL
Fundamentals #1. Introduction and IPv6 Addressing
Fundamentals #2. More about IPv6 Addressing. ICMPv6 and an Intro about Neighbor Discovery


Actually the Fundamentals #3 is still in preparation and will give a lot of details about DHCPv6 and Autoconfig again plus Mobile IPv6, DNS and More....


You can find all these link from my home page

http://www.fredbovy.com


or the Wiki that you can accesss from the home page with more Presentation, URL to cool docs, Video,...

http://www.fredbovy.com/MediaWiki/http://


Hope this helps,


Regards,



Fred Bovy EIRL – IPv6 For Life!

Your partner to migrate safely to IPv6

15 years ccie #3013

18 years ccsi #33517 (former #95003)

IPv6 Forum Gold Certified Engineer

IPv6 Forum Gold Certified Trainer

Member of G6 Association

Email: [email protected]

Twitter: http://twitter.com/#!/Fr

Skype: FredericBovy

Mobile: +33 676 198 206

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