Not really, because fax tones are not DTMF tones, and the IVR can only accept DTMF input. I'm not sure if the ASR addon can detect fax or not, but not many people wouldn't buy ASR just to do that. So my answer will be that no, you cannot.
One trick you could use, ask the caller a question like, "do you want free money? press 1 now"
Well, a fax cannot press 1, so therefore you just weeded out fax machines...ok, not really, because you also just weeded out pulse dial phones, cool bluetooth people, GM OnStar® people, etc. as well.
Not to mention, people will want their free money!
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We have seen in a few countries (in our case, Slovakia) the same situation - voice and faxes coming in on the same number. You need to do some magic on the voice gateway to redirect the faxes to another dial-peer, and then to the fax machine. It can be tricky.
I started thinking about it and... I don't think it's going to be easy. First, what is that convenient time interval the caller (a human) may wait while a system analyzes the voice (if any) whether it is a fax or not? If you want to filter all calls, then you need to route all calls to a machine which will do the voice analysis (how long?) and based on the result it will route the call to either a fax machine or an agent.
The machine may be a standard JTAPI contolled bunch of CTI ports that will record a short sample of the voice (2-3 seconds is sufficient) while the system plays "please wait while your call is transferred" and in the meantime it would analyse the recording. I have no idea what a fax beep looks like... But it is an interesting idea. I will definitely try to figure it out. Will let you know.
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