Hello, I am thinking about how cucm would be implemented in a centralized topology over a VPN.
For instance you have your CUCM at HQ site, with a group of phones and another group of phones at a remote site.
When the group of phones at the remote site start up, do you assign them IP addresses from a DHCP server at the remote site using a different subnet or do you instead relay the dhcp request to HQ site to use the DHCP server at HQ with the same subnet as the HQ phones ?
Hi. Cisco SRND suggests to deploy a dhcp server at remote site because, in case of a long downtime of the wan and IP Phones are in SRST condition, they could loose their IP address and registration to the VG.
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Configure DHCP lease times as appropriate for the network environment. Given a fairly static network in which PCs and telephony devices remain in the same place for long periods of time, Cisco recommends longer DHCP lease times (for example, one week). Shorter lease times require more frequent renewal of the DHCP configuration and increase the amount of DHCP traffic on the network. Conversely, networks that incorporate large numbers of mobile devices, such as laptops and wireless telephony devices, should be configured with shorter DHCP lease times (for example, one day) to prevent depletion of DHCP-managed subnet addresses. Mobile devices typically use IP addresses for short increments of time and then might not request a DHCP renewal or new address for a long period of time. Longer lease times will tie up these IP addresses and prevent them from being reassigned even when they are no longer being used.
Cisco Unified IP Phones adhere to the conditions of the DHCP lease duration as specified in the DHCP server's scope configuration. Once half the lease time has expired since the last successful DHCP server acknowledgment, the IP phone will request a lease renewal. This DHCP client Request, once acknowledged by the DHCP server, will allow the IP phone to retain use of the IP scope (that is, the IP address, default gateway, subnet mask, DNS server (optional), and TFTP server (optional)) for another lease period. If the DHCP server becomes unavailable, an IP phone will not be able to renew its DHCP lease, and as soon as the lease expires, it will relinquish its IP configuration and will thus become unregistered from Unified CM until a DHCP server can grant it another valid scope.
In centralized call processing deployments, if a remote site is configured to use a centralized DHCP server (through the use of a DHCP relay agent such as the IP Helper Address in Cisco IOS) and if connectivity to the central site is severed, IP phones within the branch will not be able to renew their DHCP scope leases. In this situation, branch IP phones are at risk of seeing their DHCP lease expire, thus losing the use of their IP address, which would lead to service interruption. Given the fact that phones attempt to renew their leases at half the lease time, DHCP lease expiration can occur as soon as half the lease time since the DHCP server became unreachable. For example, if the lease time of a DHCP scope is set to 4 days and a WAN failure causes the DHCP server to be unavailable to the phones in a branch, those phones will be unable to renew their leases at half the lease time (in this case, 2 days). The IP phones could stop functioning as early as 2 days after the WAN failure, unless the WAN comes back up and the DHCP server is available before that time. If the WAN connectivity failure persists, all phones see their DHCP scope expire after a maximum of 4 days from the WAN failure.
This situation can be mitigated by one of the following methods:
•Set the DHCP scope lease to a long duration (for example, 8 days or more).
This method would give the system administrator a minimum of half the lease time to remedy any DHCP reachability problem. Long lease durations also have the effect of reducing the frequency of network traffic associated with lease renewals.
•Configure co-located DHCP server functionality (for example, run a DHCP server function on the branch's Cisco IOS router).
This approach is immune to WAN connectivity interruption. One effect of such an approach is to decentralize the management of IP addresses, requiring incremental configuration efforts in each branch
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The below trick might come handy when you have to add a new node to a cluster but you don't have or is unsure of the security password for the publisher. This procedure has been around for ages.
1) Login into the CLI of the Publisher.