I read this article but I have a doubt because they said that: Cisco IP phones will only work with the Cisco ASA Phone Proxy and will not establish secure connectivity with the Cisco Unified Communications Manager.
Provisioning Cisco IP phones with LSC Certificates
By default, LSC certificates are not installed on Cisco IP phones. Cisco IP phones that are required to use LSC certificates must be provisioned to allow TLS transactions before deployment in the field. LSC certificates can be provisioned to the Cisco IP phones through the Certificate Authority Proxy Function (CAPF) process. This process is completed using TLS and USB tokens coupled with the CTL client. Moreover, the Cisco ASA Phone Proxy feature can serve LSC certificates to the Cisco IP phones. Cisco IP phones will only work with the Cisco ASA Phone Proxy and will not establish secure connectivity with the Cisco Unified Communications Manager.
There are two modes explained about provisioning ip phones using TLS.
Using Cisco Unified Communications Manager (with USB Tokens)
In this case is necessary to install certificates and follow certain procedure. The phone communication is encrypted to the CUCM.
The second option:
Using Cisco ASA Phone Proxy (without USB tokens)
This is a simplification and quite nice solution to securely connect ip phones from Internet. The encrypted communication goes from the phone to the ASA. Then the ASA relays the communication to the CUCM non encrypted.
In this case, would not be necessary to open ports or expose the CUCM to the Internet.
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