most usual implementation is you'll only receive the last 4 digits for any DID range as they will not overlap, in case they overlap then you might want to receive more digits or the full phone number to differentiate them
The FXS cards also have a DID mode that isn't very commonly used. This allows for the provider to go offhook, we in a sense 'wink', and they send digits. This is opposed to just going offhook and listening to digits. When you see the VIC-4FXS/DID card this is what it's referring to.
Otherwise - DID mostly refers to the capability of directly dialing a user. This is the alternative to something like dialing an autoattendant who then routes the call to an extension. In this case, the autoattendant would be the 'DID'.
For your questions:
1. Sometimes providers sent the full number, sometimes they send the partial number. If they're sending numbers at all it's DID.
2. Yes, we cannot use translation rules unless we have digits to translate.
This is in opposition to taking a call on an FXO port. We just go offhook and we're connected, and we do not know the called number, so we send the number to a pre-specified DN.
When you get the circuit with the provider, this is something you negotiate with them with. If not - it's not terribly hard to find out. Just use 'debug voip ccapi inout' to find out what they're sending to you. If you don't like it, you can call them and ask them to change it, and they will usually comply. The amount of digits isn't normally very important. If they send 4 digits, you can create your own translation pattern/mask to expand it very easily.
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