I could give you a long-winded answer about the various things that could be at play here but I suspect your first concern is needing this to work (mine would be). So, here's a veteran suggestion on steps to take:
1) Open a TAC case with Cisco and see if they can work you through this in the current state (i.e., Pub is rebuilt, remaining servers were left alone).
2) If TAC cannot help you resolve, your best course of action is to rebuild the cluster from scratch (starting with the Publisher, which has been done).
While CSA can block a number of things, I'd be surprised if it is the culprit for all of the errors displayed in your screen shots.
I'm not able to access my old voice mail messages all of a sudden. The recording says something like 'the message is currently not available'. This has never happened before in all the years I have been using this system. I have t...