This seems to be particular to your environment, your OS, or your domain policies. I've seen a few issues on Windows versions that were tweaked for security concerns. Try a "regular" windows version to confirm this is due to your particular environment, you might want to try with your SE/TAC.
This problem is just on one Server of about ~20 others. The installation works fine on the other Servers.
So its not a domain policies or something like that its something corruptet on this server. Probably this is important: This Server is the once who somebody tried the installation while a Office Application (Microsoft Outlook 2007) was started on it.
Are you getting this error “Installer User Interface Mode Not Supported. The installer cannot run in this UI mode. To specify the interface mode, use the -i command-line option, followed by the UI mode identifier. The value UI mode identifiers...
The below trick might come handy when you have to add a new node to a cluster but you don't have or is unsure of the security password for the publisher. This procedure has been around for ages.
1) Login into the CLI of the Publisher.