1) you do not need separate passwords for vty 0 4 and vty 5 15. They can have the same password and I would recommend that they should have the same password. This is related to the answer to #2.
2) the purpose of divide it into 2 parts is for historical compatibility. For earlier IOS devices there were 5 vty ports (vty 0 4). The template for output of show run and show start still maintains vty 0 4 as it originally was and then show the other vty as if they were separate. But they really are not separate. You can verify this if you configure something on all vty in one command. For example if you configure this:
line vty 0 15
access-class 15 in
and then do show run you will see that access-class 15 is now configured on all the vty ports.
3) the 7 in the output indicates that the password has been encrypted. It is not difficult to break this encryption (it is not a strong encryption). Without knowing the encrypted value we can not tell whether it is the same password or not. But I would guess that it is the same password.
4)the vty will activate if you telnet to it. And the console is active if you plug a terminal into the console port. As configured there is no password for the console. As configured if you connect on the console you should go directly into user mode.
I am not sure that I understand your question here. If you have the character strings for the passwords there are utilities that will decrypt them and show the password in clear text. So if you have the config and can get the character strings then you could determine whether vty 0 4 and vty 5 15 were using the same password.
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