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IOS Architecture - help required please!!!!

I've been studying the "Inside Cisco IOS Software Architecture (CCIE Professional Development)" documentation for a better understanding of how a router deals with incoming packets and just as I thought I was getting to grips with it, I hit upon a stumbling block. I have searched high and low for a definitive answer which is clear and consice but not found anything yet.

My understanding is that when a packet is detected on the physical medium, the Interface media controller plays in the packet into its onboard Rx FIFO. At some point and not necessarily after the whole packet has been received, the Interface media controller looks at the next available RX-ring descriptor to establish the location of a free private interface packet buffer which the Interface Media Controller owns. Once found, the Rx FIFO is emptied and the packet is placed in the private interface packet buffer through Direct Memory Access (DMA). At this point the ownership of the private interface packet buffer (now filled with the packet) transfers to the main processor. I understand that at this point an attempt is made to replenish the RX-ring with another descriptor pointing to another private interface packet buffer from the private interface buffer pool. If one is not found, RX-ring descriptor will point to a free Public System buffer matching the MTU of the recieving interface.

So far, so good I hope!!!!!!!!!!

It's the next stage that throws me.....The Cisco documemtation keeps referring back to the Public Systems Buffers and how a request is made for a small buffer, middle buffer, big buffer etc....that satisfies the size of the packet needing to be processed.

From what I can read into, the packet held in the private interface packet buffer must be copied to a Public System buffer before the processor can process switch it.

My questions are:

Q1: Is this true - must the packet held in the private interface packet buffer be copied to a Public System buffer before the processor can process switch it? If so then why - is it because the processor does not have access to private interface packet buffers?

Q2: If Q1 is true then does that mean there will be 2 copies of the packet - one in the Private interface packet buffer and one in a Public System buffer? If so then why? Why not free up the Private interface packet buffer?

Q3: Where is the request for a specific Public System Buffer generated from?

Q4: Do packets held in Private Interface buffers need to be copied into Public System Buffers before Fast Switching can take place? If so, again why?

Q5: In Process Switching, documentation refers to incoming packets being placed in the Input Queue which has a configurable depth. ie the number of packets stored in the Queue. My question is: - Is this a queue that simply points to the Public Sytem Buffers - one after another, or is it a Queue that contains more copies of the original packets?

I'm most probably missing the point when it comes to understanding this complex subject but if anyone could help me I would really appreciate it.

Many thanks


Cisco Employee

Re: IOS Architecture - help required please!!!!


This document describes the 7200 router architecture. The packet switching section is based on the same book material you reference.

In this document it seems like step 5 is where the confusion comes into play. If the packet can be fast or CEF switched then step 5 is skipped and step 6 is used.

Q1) The packet is copied to a Public System Buffer to be process switched only. If the router is using fast or CEF switching the packet doens't need to be copied. I have seen older references to this as being due to not all of the process switching features being aware of particles.

Q2) The document doesn't explicitely state this, but the private buffer is returned to the proper interface pool. The private buffers still contain the data until they are reused though.

Q3) If I undertsand the question correctly the spefic pool used to process switch a packet is based on the packet size. Note that public buffers are also requested and used for traffic generated by the router itself. In this context many processes will request buffers.

Q4) No. Fast and CEF switched traffic remain in the private buffers until transmission. Pointers to the particles are passed around until the packet is transmitted and the particles are returned to the correct private pool.

Q5) The Input Queue on an interface is only used for process switched traffic which arrived on that interface. The size of the queue can be configued, but the queue is just a collection of pointers to the public buffers.

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