I want to clarify some stuff about wan technologies ..
WAN technologies as Frame relay , PPP , ATM , X25 are defined on first , second , third iso osi layers by which physical interface can use , which encapsulation type , what rate i need to use for my services to transmit over WAN ...
this technologies commonly use serial synchronous bit oriented transmition. They can comunicate over isdn , sonet , dsl , etc whitch are physical standarts correct ?
Say you want to connect an office in New York with an office in California. To do so, you could contact a frame-relay, x25, ATM, or MPLS provider. These providers have meshed together many regions, states, and countries so that your communication can travel across their backboned network. This eliminates the need to run a cable directly from office to office. It is scalable, because you can add another office to the provider's backboned network very easily.
Leased lines, according to the CCENT/CCNA, is usally a direct line from one router, or network, to another. This would generally be PPP or HDLC.
I am not entirely sure about TDM and STDM. Usually, only software engineers/developers are concerned with these features.
ATM, X25, Frame-relay, MPLS communicate over their own backbones; they are their own layer 1 & 2 protocol, more or less. Google: "MPLS backbone", "ATM backbone", "Frame-relay backbone", "x.25 backbone", and look under images.
These connections are generally serparate from the Internet, and therefore they do not use DSL, cable, etc.
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