In general, 12.4 is the "mainline" (no suffix) release. 12.4T is the "test" release (which will become the next mainline version - now out and version 15.0 I believe). All the others are special purpose releases which often provide some new feature for software or hardware not found in "mainline" but without all the new features found in "test". To determine actual differences between releases (or even within a version's releases, e.g. 12.4.5T vs. 12.4.20T) you need to consult the feature navigator tool and/or release notes.
I know my post is a couple years late, but my question is somewhat related. I realize there are different features; for instance 12.4YB supports most of the MPLS TE, while the 12.4 mainline supports more MPLS VPN features. (This is just a small subset). My question is this: from a high level are these versions made to target a specific customer? Service provider vs data center?
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Cisco would be able to best answer that, but various release trains do seem to be oriented toward particular platforms and/or particular market segments. I believe over the last couple of years Cisco has been trying to cut back on all the various release trains. Now they seem more oriented just toward particular platforms. (Of course, the platforms, themselves, often are oriented toward certain market segments.)
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