MPLS can work on two modes Frame mode and Cell mode.
Routers by default support frame mode.ATM switches and routers with ATM interface support cell mode.
PHP means Penultimate Hop.PHP is a term use to refer to node which is one HOP before the destination.e.g
R1-R2-R3-R4,your destination is on R4 in that case R3 is acting as PHP.It pops the label and sends it out as IP packet.
The PE router assigns the labels to all its destination learned through IGP.However BGP routes gets the label through their next hop e.g If you learn 120K BGP routes through single next hop.All the BGP routes will be having one label.
There is a feature called BGP with labels which overcomes this limitation.
1. Introduction Internet security is important with the increasing
attacks that are happening every day. Many internet and browsing
security solutions exist, but some are not very easy to use or maybe the
question is how can I enable them? In this referen...
Cisco Software Manager Server API Guide This document describes the
programmatic interfaces, RESTful APIs, which are supported by Cisco
Software Manager Server (CSM Server). Overview CSM Server supports a set
of finite RESTful APIs. The first step to use ...
If you are using Cisco's new linux-based Cisco Software Manager server,
then you probably want to make sure there is a startup service for
it.I'll assume that you've already installed the CSM server on a
systemd-based linux system. The commands given belo...