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User receives the %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP : Neighbor X.X.X.X () is down: K-value mismatch error message
On routers running Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), an error message indicating that the neighbor is down due to K-value mismatch might appear for these reasons:
Different settings for metric calculation on the EIGRP neighbors. By default, EIGRP uses bandwidth and delay to compute routing metrics. However, additional parameters such as load and reliability can be used while computing the metric by modifying the value of the corresponding multipliers (k-value). Two routers with different K-values figured on them do not become neighbors and generate the k-value mismatch error.
An EIGRP router running Cisco IOS version 12.3 signals an immediate disconnect to another EIGRP neighbor by changing the k-values. If the receiving router uses an older version and does not recognize this as a graceful shutdown, it generates this k-value mismatch error.