Note that, while SONET is accurately described as being a "Layer 1" (physical layer) protocol, it's not "just" a physical/electrical specification like, say, Category 5 Unshielded Twisted Pair (Cat 5 UTP). The SONET specifications and protocols include a number of methodologies for multiplexing of signals (DS-x through OC-n speeds) into trunks, protection of traffic on those trunks, etc. SONET trunks typically operate at speeds ranging from OC-48 (~2.5 Gbps) to OC-768 (~40 Gbps). They use path and ring protection methodologies such as Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR) to ensure reliable traffic transmission in the event of equipment or line faults.
When lower speed non-SONET inputs are carried over a SONET backbone, the packets (or cells or frames) are wrapped or encapsulated into a SONET specification signal for transmission across the SONET backbone and through any intermediate nodes until it reaches its destination. Typically there is not intelligent signaling between those tributary stream technologies and the SONET signaling. (There has been some development work along those lines such but I don't believe it's ever gained any widespread adoption.)
SONET is designed to transport many protocols and interface speeds over a common infrastructure. The current SONET multiplexers (such as ONS 15454) can support services carried via DS-1/DS-3, OC-N, Ethernet (10/100/1000Mbps), Fiber Channel, etc.
You can transport ATM and/or Frame Relay (as well as Ethernet, etc) over SONET within DS-n or OC-Nc circuits.
SONET is like a highway (SONET network). It has multiple lanes (STS/VT) to carry the traffic. Trucks (ATM) and cars (Frame Relay) can travel over the same highway in their own lanes. The on/off ramps (SONET Muxes) allow the traffic to enter and leave the highway.
We are pleased to announce availability of Beta software for 16.6.3.
16.6.3 will be the second rebuild on the 16.6 release train targeted
towards Catalyst 9500/9400/9300/3850/3650 switching platforms. We are
looking for early feedback from customers befor...
Introduction Featured Speakers Luis Espejel is the Telecommunications
Manager of IENova, an Oil & Gas company. Currently he works with Cisco
IOS® and Cisco IOS XE platforms, and NX to some extent. He has also
worked as a Senior Engineer with the Routing P...
In this session you can learn more about Layer 3 multicast and the best
practices to identify possible threats and take security measures. It
provides an overview of basic multicast, the best security practices for
use of this technology, and recommendati...