CTI is here to your rescue. Have a look at JTAPI, it provides the means to figure out all that information. With recent CCM versions there's even a functionality to figure out the status of all phones without having to get each phone from the provider and determine its status by looking at the status of its lines.
These are the paths to get to each CCX logs through CLI. They may be helpful if you are having issues accessing RTMT or downloading logs through it.
If you want to download them you have to prefix "file get " and you can add one of the options (re...