Describle the effect on network delay during fragmentation?
I would like more information on this question please..Describe the effect on network delay when comparing fragmentation during transmission to fragmentation at source. Explain your answer in relation to the load on packet switches and delays specific to each system.
I managed to find that fragments impose processing load on the routers that have to split the
packets. Fragmentation also introduces overhead in the bandwidth used for transmission, because each fragment has to contain both the L2 and L3 header.
Re: Describle the effect on network delay during fragmentation?
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Describe the effect on network delay when comparing fragmentation during transmission to fragmentation at source.
The source shouldn't fragment. It shouldn't create packet sizes larger than what it believes is PMTU. Source may not know PMTU, and if it doesn't, it will send a packet too large which will either be fragmented downstream or dropped with a message back to the source it's "too large".
From a performance perspective, the only hit to performance, if source is not exceeding PMTU would be more overhead to payload compared to a path with a larger PMTU (if the source can create packets the larger size).
There is a performance hit if the source receives a "too large" packet. Data that generated the "too large" will need to be resent (which incurs additional latency for that particular data). If the "too large" ICMP message doesn't indicate max size (possible in older implementations), then source finds max by trial and error (which incurs additional delay).
Source will "age out" max MTU, and when it does, it will again repeat process of dealing with "too large". (NB: the age out is because MTU can vary per path, and the "too large" might be specific to one path and active transmission path may have changed.)
I managed to find that fragments impose processing load on the routers that have to split the packets. Fragmentation also introduces overhead in the bandwidth used for transmission, because each fragment has to contain both the L2 and L3 header.
Yes, that's all true. Impact varies based on platform and how much fragmentation is required. On many devices, CPU increase can be very noticeable. Device's PPS rate is generally reduced. How much additional latency is added would also vary per platform. Typically additional delay probably isn't significant, reduced PPS rate may be.
With fragmentation, receiver has to reassemble packet, which also incurs additional latency.
Typically additional latency isn't an issue with fragmentation as you're probably dealing with just a few additional milliseconds.
What can be a major problem is additional processing demand which pushes a network device, performing fragmentation, beyond its current capacity limits.
Another issue with fragmentation, a fragmented packet can be lost, but source only knows of original packet.
You really want to avoid fragmentation. If you know the path's MTU is smaller than your local MTU, you might be better off setting your local MTU to match. If you control the network devices where the fragmentation occurs, Cisco's ip tcp mss-adjust command is a good way to avoid fragmentation (if it's supported on the Cisco device).
This is actually a pretty cool feature, i didn't even know it existed until I was looking for a solution to advertise a subnet (prefix in BGP talk), only if a certain condition existed. This is exactly what conditional advertisements does
j ai une question j ai achete un routeur cisco 887VA-k9 , je le configuré avec la configuration ci- dessous
si je le lier avec mon pc portable sur l un de ses ports directement ça marche toute est bien ( la connexion internet + m...
Attached policy provides CLI access to the Cisco 4G router over text messaging. Two files are in the attached .tar file:
2. PDF with instructions on how to load and use the .tcl file.