Hellos are multicast for neighbor discovery/recovery. They do not require acknowledgment. A hello with no data is also used as an acknowledgment (ack). Acks are always sent using a unicast address and contain a non-zero acknowledgment number.
Updates are used to convey reachability of destinations. When a new neighbor is discovered, update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its topology table. In this case, update packets are unicast. In other cases, such as a link cost change, updates are multicast. Updates are always transmitted reliably.
Queries and replies are sent when destinations go into Active state. Queries are always multicast unless they are sent in response to a received query. In this case, it is unicast back to the successor that originated the query. Replies are always sent in response to queries to indicate to the originator that it does not need to go into Active state because it has feasible successors. Replies are unicast to the originator of the query. Both queries and replies are transmitted reliably.
Request packets are used to get specific information from one or more neighbors. Request packets are used in route server applications. They can be multicast or unicast. Requests are transmitted unreliably.
Question We run asr9001 with XR 6.1.3, and we have a very long delay to
login w/ SSH 1 or 2 to the device compare to IOS device. After
investigation, the there is 1s delay between the client KEXDH_INIT and
the server (XR) KEXDH_REPLY. After debug ssh serv...
Introduction The purpose of this document is to demonstrate the Open
Shortest Path First (OSPF) behavior when the V-bit (Virtual-link bit) is
present in a non-backbone area. The V-bit is signaled in Type-1 LSA only
if the router is the endpoint of one or ...
Hi, I am seeing quite a few issues with patch install and wanted to
share my experience and workaround to this. Login to admin via CLI, then
access root with the “shell” command Issue “df –h” and you’ll probably
see the following directory full or nearly ...