Switch does not provide the inline power to the phone it is the line card with inline power module which provides the power over ethernet.
Can you please paste the output of sh mod and confirm which module and port you are installing your ip phone and I will confirm if that line card is capable of providing the inline power or not.
For an exmple if you have line card WS-X6148A-GE-TX on you cat6k and you connect your ip phone to this you will not get any inline power but if your line card is WS-X6148A-GE-45AF it will provide the inline power if you connect your ip phone. So it all depends on the line card which you are using to connect you ip phones.
You may suffer a physical issue, I had the same with a Cisco Access Point and 3rd party InLine power.
The solution was a simple balun that changes polarity to match the other equipment. You may have the same issue connecting a Cisco switch to a non-Cisco 802.3af device. I found a reference from Cisco that depicts what I mean:
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