Distinct reservation. This constitutes a flow that originates from exactly one sender.
Shared reservation. This constitutes a flow that originates from one or more senders.
RSVP describes these reservations as having certain algorithmic attributes.
An example of a distinct reservation is a video application in which each sender emits a distinct data stream that requires admission and management in a queue. Such a flow, therefore, requires a separate reservation per sender on each transmission facility it crosses (such as Ethernet, a High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) line, a Frame Relay data-link connection identifier (DLCI), or an ATM virtual channel). RSVP refers to this distinct reservation as explicit and installs it using a Fixed Filter style of reservation.
Use of RSVP for unicast applications is generally a degenerate case of a distinct flow.
An example of a shared reservation also is an audio application in which each sender emits a distinct data stream that requires admission and management in a queue. However, because of the nature of the application, a limited number of senders are sending data at any given time. Such a flow, therefore, does not require a separate reservation per sender. Instead, it uses a single reservation that can be applied to any sender within a set as needed.
RSVP installs a shared reservation using a Wild Card or Shared Explicit style of reservation, with the difference between the two determined by the scope of application (which is either wild or explicit):
The Wild Card Filter reserves bandwidth and delay characteristics for any sender and is limited by the list of source addresses carried in the reservation message.
The Shared Explicit style of reservation identifies the flows for specific network resources.
Planning for RSVP Configuration
You must plan carefully to successfully configure and use RSVP on your network. At a minimum, RSVP must reflect your assessment of bandwidth needs on router interfaces. Consider the following questions as you plan for RSVP configuration:
How much bandwidth should RSVP allow per end-user application flow? You must understand the "feeds and speeds" of your applications. By default, the amount reservable by a single flow can be the entire reservable bandwidth. You can, however, limit individual reservations to smaller amounts using the single flow bandwidth parameter. The reserved bandwidth value may not exceed the interface reservable amount, and no one flow may reserve more than the amount specified.
How much bandwidth is available for RSVP? By default, 75 percent of the bandwidth available on an interface is reservable. If you are using a tunnel interface, RSVP can make a reservation for the tunnel whose bandwidth is the sum of the bandwidths reserved within the tunnel.
How much bandwidth must be excluded from RSVP so that it can fairly provide the timely service required by low-volume data conversations? End-to-end controls for data traffic assume that all sessions will behave so as to avoid congestion dynamically. Real-time demands do not follow this behavior. Determine the bandwidth to set aside so bursty data traffic will not be deprived as a side effect of the RSVP QoS configuration.
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