It is very hard to me to understand how the clocking in SDH works. I understand, when there is one shared clock to several elements, and all the elements are synchronized to this clock and to each other. But how the elements can be synchronized when the clock is passed in the frame of SDH (in E1 byte)? How the clock can pass in some byte in the frame, for my understanding, the clock must me connected directly to all the elements? And the last question, is how can elements use internal clocks if they need to be synchronized with each other.
I will be very thankfull for your answers, this issue is very bothering me.
E1 is "orderwire Byte" and has nothing to do with Clocking/Synchronization on SDH. If you are talking about Clocking on a SDH Ring, then an Optical Mux can derive it's clock from three different sources.
1) Internal Stratum 3 (Standby normally)
2) Line (Optical Trunk cards - STM-4, STM-16)
3) External,Directly from Timing pins provided on mux, which are connected to GPS enabled Stratum 1 Timing source.
Normally One or Two Mux's in a ring are Timed externally to a Stratum 1 source (highest possible) and rest of mux's on Ring derive their clocking from their Optical Trunk cards.
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