One way could be to determine the mac-address connected to a port and then going to your L3 next-hop (either a router or multilayer switch) and then matching this mac to an ip address by looking at the arp-cache.
show cdp neigh detail will show you other Cisco devices connected to this switch, it will show the device's ip address, what kind of device it is, it's system name.
For non Cisco devices:
If the devices are in the same vlan as the mgmt interface (Inteface vlan x), you can do a "show arp", it will show you the ip addresses of the devices that you ping from this device.
If the devices connected are in different vlan than the mgmt interface of the switch, then you need to go to the L3 where the default gateway of the device connected to this switch is pointed to, from there you can "show arp" as well.
We are pleased to announce availability of Beta software for 16.6.3. 16.6.3 will be the second rebuild on the 16.6 release train targeted towards Catalyst 9500/9400/9300/3850/3650 switching platforms. We are looking for early feedback from custome...