Assuming your router does support it, hierarchical QoS policies would be exactly what you need. One policy is used to shape the rate down to a configurable rate and the second poicy would then prioritize traffic within the defined bandwidth.
class-map match-all Mytraffic1
match ip address 101
! specify ACL 101 to match traffic for priority queue
class-map match-all Mytraffic2
match ip address 102
! specify ACL 102 to match other important traffic
shape average 512000
service-policy output Prio
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252
service-policy output shape512k
You have to adjust the example config to your environment and also could use many more classes than depicted.
In case you add a "rate-limit" command to the interface per class, you would drop traffic, if it increases above the specified rate, regardless of the available capacity at this moment. In the above config MytrafficX will get minimum guarantees and thus might be allowed to get the full shaped bandwidth, if no other traffic is present.
The example above follows current best practice. For further reading have a look at "Enterprise QoS Solution Reference Network Design Guide Version 3.3"
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